睡觉: A Missing Link to Cancer Prevention

Dena Ali.on sleep deprivation

By Dena Ali


现代火场的毒性增加使癌症成为当今消防员健康的最大威胁之一。虽然这项索赔已经得到了许多研究的支持,但许多人都有相互冲突的发现,因为没有收获数据的标准方法。例如,美国国家职业安全和健康研究所的1960 - 2009年为30,000名消防员的大规模研究报告了消防员的癌症死亡增加了9%。1Yet, another interpretation of the same study found just a small to moderate increase for certain cancers stemming primarily from the digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems.2Notably, this study found a two-fold increase in malignant mesothelioma from asbestos exposure. (2)


睡觉Deprivation in EMS

The Sleepless Heart of the Fire Service


Conclusions from these types of studies suggest the need for future research to control for such variables as gender, race, number/type of calls, and use of respiratory protection. However, studies like these have also been limited in what they tell us about techniques for cancer prevention. We’re directing efforts at limiting exposure by keeping firefighters, gear, apparatus, and stations clean. But are we missing other critical pieces of the prevention puzzle?

效果Immune System

如果有一种简单的方法来加强免疫系统,以便你的身体的天然杀手细胞可能会攻击恶性(癌症)肿瘤细胞?有!人类自然有一个内置的系统来提升这些抗癌细胞,而是为了工作,系统需要每晚获得足够的睡眠 - 七到九个小时。通过限制暴露于毒素但未能获得适当的睡眠来防止癌症类似于通过运动来减肥但不能吃健康的睡眠。


不仅仅是贫穷的抗癌细胞睡觉renders ineffective; studies of vaccines have found that insufficient sleep can also render the body too weak to produce an effective immune response. One study found that individuals who had their sleep restricted for just a week prior to getting a flu shot produced less than 50 percent of the immune reaction compared to the group that had adequate sleep. (3)


First responders are well known for their poor sleep habits, and it doesn’t take too long to hear the adage, “I’ll sleep when I’m dead” tossed around. Sadly, if that’s a motto you live by, you may have the opportunity sooner than you’d prefer. “Like water from a burst pipe in our home, the effects of sleep deprivation will seep into every nook and cranny of biology, down into your cells, and even alter your DNA.” (3) Simply put, the less time you sleep, the less time you will live. In his research, sleep scientist Dr. Matthew Walker found that insufficient sleep was a slow form of euthanasia. Despite growing evidence for this, there is often an attitude of invulnerability in firehouses that suggests that those who need more sleep are weak or lazy. Jaqueline and Sean Toomey said it best in their article,“沉迷于清醒:消防服务中的睡眠剥夺,”which stated, “We are immersed in a culture that deems sleeping an indulgent, sinful activity at best.”4.




The fire service must normalize the need for sleep in the same way it has normalized the use of self- contained breathing apparatus. This starts by recognizing that the leading causes of the diseases that are crippling health care systems and the fire service such as heart disease, obesity, depression,suicide, diabetes, and癌症对睡眠不良有因果关系。




Connection to Cancer

However, of all the illnesses associated with poor sleep, learning about its connection to cancer was the most frightening. Epidemiological studies on shift work discovered that sleep disruption increases your odds of developing numerous forms of cancer, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. (3) In fact, because of the increased evidence connecting sleep disruption with cancer, Denmark became the first country to pay workers’ compensation to a woman who had developed breast cancer after years of night shift work. A recent European study of almost 25,000 people found that sleeping fewer than six hours was associated with a 40 percent increased risk of developing cancer compared to those sleeping for seven hours or more. (3)






Fighting Cancer on the Fireground: One Department’s Model

According to Dr. Walker, “Like a car engine that is revved to a shrieking extreme for sustained periods of time, your sympathetic nervous system is floored into perpetual overdrive by lack of sleep. The consequential strain that is placed on your body by the persistent force of this sympathetic activation will leak out in all manner of health issues, just like the failed pistons, gaskets, seals, and gnashing gears of an abused car engine.” (3)




If we are serious about preventing cancer among first responders, we must prioritize changing the way we view sleep. Agency leadership must also prioritize finding ways to increase the quality of sleep among its members by encouraging them to be evaluated for sleep disorders; this evaluation should include educational sessions that will encourage better sleep hygiene practices and treatment.

睡觉Education and Stages



Through advances in science and technology, we now understand that our bodies are designed to experience four stages of sleep each night. These stages progress through approximately four or five 90-minute cycles that rotate between a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) state and a rapid eye movement (REM) state. The first two cycles are primarily dominated by NREM deep sleep, while the last two cycles consist primary of REM sleep. Both stages of sleep serve different roles for the body and mind. NREM is necessary for mental and physical recovery, while REM is necessary for cognition and processing of memories.



Walker recommends a few simple ways to evaluate if you are getting sufficient sleep. Number one is if you didn’t set an alarm clock, would you sleep past that time? If so, your body needs more sleep than what you are allowing it, and you should consider an earlier bedtime. Also, during the day, do you find yourself rereading the same sentence multiple times (fatigued brain)? Finally, do you sometimes forget what color the last few traffic lights were (distraction)?

If you regularly sleep seven to nine hours and still experience these symptoms, you should consider being evaluated for a sleep disorder that may be interrupting your sleep. If you experience these symptoms because you don’t sleep sufficiently, consider finding ways to get more sleep. Additionally, if you are using sleeping pills or alcohol as a sleep aid, understand that these substances work as a sedative and inhibit true restorative sleep. They inhibit the REM stage of sleep, which prevents the brain’s natural ability to recalibrate, regulate emotions, and process memories. The use of alcohol and sleeping pills has been found to contribute to early mortality, emotional dysregulation, and PTSD.

Individuals and company- and agency-level members can take many actions to improve their sleep. At the individual level, work on consistent bedtimes and rid sleeping areas of any distractions. When your body recognizes you are in bed solely to sleep, you fall asleep easier. Other suggestions include the following:

  • 在上床睡前时刻限制电子设备的使用。
  • 将你的体温减少了两度,这让您可以更轻松地睡着了。找到减少卧室温度的方法。
  • 每天锻炼,这激励身体更好地睡觉。但是,尽量不要在睡眠三个小时内锻炼身体。
  • 停止使用时钟上的“贪睡”按钮。如果您打盹30分钟,您已抢劫大约25%的REM睡眠。(REM睡眠腹部睡眠结束。)
  • 如果你辗转反侧,无法平静你的心while attempting to sleep, there are ways to calm your mind. First, hide any time-keeping devices to reduce stress. Practice mindfulness by doing a simple breathing exercise. One of the simplest is the Navy SEALs’ breathing technique where you inhale for four seconds, hold your breath for four seconds, exhale for four seconds, and hold your breath for four seconds. By focusing on your breath, you start to calm the mind. This technique also reduces your respiratory rate and activates the parasympathetic nervous system. Using the sleep stories included in the calm and head- space apps are extremely helpful.
  • If you are still unable to fall asleep, get out of bed and go to another room. Keep the light dim and engage in a calming activity (not television).
  • 小睡!Allison Brager博士,睡眠科学家为国防部建议敲打20至30分钟。她分享的伎俩包括在躺下睡午觉之前消耗一剂咖啡因。因为咖啡因需要30分钟才能踢进,你应该在醒来时立即感受到其影响。午餐后或在傍晚休息90分钟。如果您在一家繁忙的公司工作,可能是大部分夜晚,这样做允许您完成一个完整的睡眠周期,从而在过夜时间变得更加警觉。
  • 限制接管柜台睡眠丸。
  • Eliminate alcohol within four hours of bedtime.
  • Establish a consistent nighttime routine that is free of light and low in mental and physical intensity.
  • 午餐后消除咖啡因摄入量。咖啡因的平均半衰期为五到七个小时。这意味着如果你有一杯咖啡,那么下午7点,你仍然可以在上午1点在你的系统中有一半的咖啡因。
  • Encourage members to practice sleep hygiene techniques. One of the greatest things a company officer can do for his crew is recognize the need for sleep and
  • 鼓励他的成员改变他们的习惯,包括睡午觉,安静的宿舍,并仅为贵公司的回应而被唤醒。
  • 消除宿舍中的电话使用,电视观看和其他电子设备。当你的身体识别一个区域只是睡眠时,它能够更快地睡着了。
  • 保持宿舍温度约为2°F至3°F冷却器比消防屋的其他区域更冷。
  • 睡在私人宿舍里,没有分心和打鼾的声音。
  • Use dim lighting in the dorm.
  • Replace trip lights with a calmer red light.
  • In multicompany stations, awaken only the crew being dispatched for a call.
  • 专注于查找换档后允许更多恢复时间的计划。目前的56小时工作周不是最佳的。一项研究发现,需要一到两晚的恢复睡眠,从24小时轮班造成的赤字中恢复。
  • 如果您患有失眠,请在培训的治疗师寻找培训,以对失眠的认知行为疗法。
  • If you rarely feel refreshed after sleeping, be evaluated for a sleep disorder.
  • Tart cherry juice is a natural sleep aid and an anti-inflammatory. You can purchase concentrated versions at your local grocery store.
  • 对于更多提示,去https://www.sleepfoundation.org/





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